Glomaji character entry rules
- wa/ha, e/he, o/wo and zu/du
Though in certain cases the written Japanese characters for “ha” (は) and “he” (へ) are pronounced also as “wa” (わ) and “e” (え) respectively, and “wo” (を) and “du” （づ） are pronounced as “o” (お) and “zu” (ず), they are written as you would when inputting Japanese text into a PC: “ha,” “he,” “wo” and “du.” E.g. “Watashi ha gakkou he ikimasu.” “Benkyou wo tsudukemasu.”
- “data” is written as “de-ta ”
In romaji “-“ (hyphen) represents a long vowel sound. It does not break up or connect a sentence as in English. “-“ is mostly used in katakana words. E.g. “de-ta” (data).
- onnna (woman), kinnyuu (finance)
When you input the “n” letter into a PC, the computer waits to see if you will add a vowel to it to create characters such as “na,” “ni,” “nu,” “ne” and “no,” as well as “nya,” “nyu” and “nyo.” Therefore, in order to input an “n” to form a character you have to type “n” twice when “a,” “ i.” “u,” “e,” “o” and “n” follow.
- ben(n)kyou, Nihon(n)
In order to get the “ん” (n) character, you need to add another letter“n.”However, when the following letter is a consonant such as “k,” “s,” or “t,” and when the word ends with “n,” it is still possible to type the Japanese character without adding another “n.” In Glomaji another “n” is not necessary after the first “n” for such cases.
- pa-thi- (party)
Pronounced as “pa-ti-,” but when inputting with a PC you must add the letter “h” between “t” and “i” to get “パーティ.”
Some people write an “n” as an “m” when it comes before the letter “b” and “p.” E.g. “newspaper” (新聞 / しんぶん) is written “shimbun.” You can not convert into correct Japanese, so please write as “shinbun,”
- coffee (ko-hi-)
Loan English words like “coffee” are written as they would be in English, therefore in Glomaji we simply type: “coffee.” Of course, if you were converting these words into katakana using a PC, you would type “ko-hi-” in order to get “コーヒー.” Words like “convenience store” (コンビニ) “konbini’ which have been greatly altered by their inclusion into the Japanese language, remain written as they would in katakana, i.e. “konbini.”
- Tokyo or Toukyou
You may spell out Japanese names used internationally such as “Tokyo” in the same way they would be written in English, even if this spelling does not exactly reflect their true pronunciation, i.e. “Toukyou.”
- Ichiro or Ichirou
,Many Japanese names end in “ou,” but written without “u” when they use as English. For instance” Ichiro” (the famous Japanese baseball player in American major league) uses “Ichiro” as his name in the USA. However, correct spelling to match Japanese “いちろう / 一郎” is ‘”Ichirou.” You can use it either “Ichiro” or “”Ichirou.”.
- Los Angeles, Not Rosanzerusu
Places names like Los Angeles are spelt as they would be in English and NOT converted into katakana words, ie. Rosanzerusu (ロサンゼルス). The same applies to proper nouns: ‘Google’ is not Guuguru, it is instead spelt “Google.”
- ODA Nobunaga, Barack OBAMA
The order in which to put first names and surnames depends on the custom of a country. Either order is fine, but to distinguish between the two please write surnames in caps. It is not necessary to do so after the first time.
- Nihon, Tennnou (Emperor), Watashi (I)
Capital letter is used for the first letter of proper nouns and the words as English does such as Sunday, January and God.
- gakkou (school), ikkai (one time)
A small character “っ” (tsu) is described repeating the letter.
[Time & Calendar]
- gogo 3 ji 15 fun (three fifteen pm)
You may also write as 3:15 pm in the same way as English.
- 15 nichi (the fifteenth)
Write out days of the month using figures. However, the first to the tenth of the month are spelt out as tsuitachi for the first day, futsuka, mikka, yokka, itsuka, muika, nanoka, youka, kokonoka, touka. Also the 20th, hatsuka, is written in full.
- Getsuyoubi (Monday)
Day of the week use caps as you would in English.
- 1 gatsu (January)
Gatsu (month) follows figures of the month.
- 2012 nen (year)
Nen (year) follows figures of the year.
[Numerals & Counting]
- 46 man 5 sen 923 en
Under one thousand, figures are used. You may write in figures only as “465,923 en.”
- 1 ban / 1 i (first)
When you describe orders, add “ban” or “i” after figures.
You may write also same as English: 10 percent
- hitotsu, hitori
The other counting than figures is written as they are.
- counters can be omitted.
In Japanese, a counter like ‘ko,’ ‘dai’ and ‘ken’ are added after figures, but you may omit these counters.
- “Watashi wa Amerikajin desu” (I am American)
Place a space between words. Also place spaces between words and particles such as”‘は”(wa), “が” (ga), “を”(o), “に” (ni), “へ” (e), “の” (no), “‘で” (de) and adjoining words.
- Suzuki san, Kanagawa Ken
San used after a name is separated, and the words that represent districts such as ken (prefecture), shi (city) and ku (ward) are also separated and capita letter is used for the first letter.
- osake and gohan (rice)
Polite words like “o” and “go” are not separated.
- chou’gouka (super gorgeous), nyuusha‘go (after entering a company)
Prefixes and suffixes are separated by an apostrophe, which is not typed when converting into Japanese.
- Yoyogi’uehara, kabushiki’gaisha , jinkou’eisei’
When two place names and proper nouns are a conjugation, separate the two with an apostrophe, which is not typed when converting into Japanese.
- benkyou suru, Benkyou shite imasu
Such verb words combining benkyou (noun) and suru (verb) are separated.
- Put a space after “~te” (~て) and “de” (~で)
When breaking a sentence using “te” (て), put a space. E.g. Nihongo wo benkyou shite tsuuyaku ni narimasu. Asonde kudasai.
- “kimasu ka” (Are you coming?) , “sou desu ne” (that’s righr)
When placing a “か” (ka) at the end of a sentence to indicate a question, put a space before typing ‘ka. Treat the following word endings in the same way: “ね” (ne), “‘よ” (yo), “‘よね” (yone,) “‘わ” (wa).
- “ikitai nn desu” (I want to go), “sou ja nai.” (Isn’t it correct?)
You often hear people use ‘n’ instead of ‘no’ in conversation, ‘In this case separate the ‘n’ with a space either side. In the same way the colloquial phrase “‘ja” (じゃ) used instead of “deha” (では) is also separated.
When one “u” is followed by another “u” they are pronounced with a lengthened vowel sound, e.g. “tsu-kin.”
- “you” and “to”
Please note that when reading Glomaji, you pronounce the above spellings differently than if you were reading it as English text. “You” is pronounced as “yo u” (the “u” is pronounced as a separate vowel rather than blending with the “yo.” “To” is pronounced the same as the “to” from the Japanese word “tomodachi” (friend).
The pronunciation of the Japanese “ou” combination is similar to the pronunciation of “oa” in float, NOT like the “ou” in “would.” In Japanese, vowels are pronounced separately, as in “ko u ban.”